FFmpeg coverage


Directory: ../../../ffmpeg/
File: src/libavcodec/elbg.c
Date: 2024-07-14 13:34:57
Exec Total Coverage
Lines: 235 244 96.3%
Functions: 16 16 100.0%
Branches: 123 144 85.4%

Line Branch Exec Source
1 /*
2 * Copyright (C) 2007 Vitor Sessak <vitor1001@gmail.com>
3 *
4 * This file is part of FFmpeg.
5 *
6 * FFmpeg is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
7 * modify it under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public
8 * License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either
9 * version 2.1 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.
10 *
11 * FFmpeg is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
12 * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
13 * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU
14 * Lesser General Public License for more details.
15 *
16 * You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General Public
17 * License along with FFmpeg; if not, write to the Free Software
18 * Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA
19 */
20
21 /**
22 * @file
23 * Codebook Generator using the ELBG algorithm
24 */
25
26 #include <string.h>
27
28 #include "libavutil/avassert.h"
29 #include "libavutil/common.h"
30 #include "libavutil/lfg.h"
31 #include "libavutil/mem.h"
32 #include "elbg.h"
33
34 #define DELTA_ERR_MAX 0.1 ///< Precision of the ELBG algorithm (as percentage error)
35
36 /**
37 * In the ELBG jargon, a cell is the set of points that are closest to a
38 * codebook entry. Not to be confused with a RoQ Video cell. */
39 typedef struct cell_s {
40 int index;
41 struct cell_s *next;
42 } cell;
43
44 /**
45 * ELBG internal data
46 */
47 typedef struct ELBGContext {
48 int error;
49 int dim;
50 int num_cb;
51 int *codebook;
52 cell **cells;
53 int *utility;
54 int *utility_inc;
55 int *nearest_cb;
56 int *points;
57 int *temp_points;
58 int *size_part;
59 AVLFG *rand_state;
60 int *scratchbuf;
61 cell *cell_buffer;
62
63 /* Sizes for the buffers above. Pointers without such a field
64 * are not allocated by us and only valid for the duration
65 * of a single call to avpriv_elbg_do(). */
66 unsigned utility_allocated;
67 unsigned utility_inc_allocated;
68 unsigned size_part_allocated;
69 unsigned cells_allocated;
70 unsigned scratchbuf_allocated;
71 unsigned cell_buffer_allocated;
72 unsigned temp_points_allocated;
73 } ELBGContext;
74
75 2466940895 static inline int distance_limited(int *a, int *b, int dim, int limit)
76 {
77 2466940895 int i, dist=0;
78
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5128620826 for (i=0; i<dim; i++) {
79 4854074942 int64_t distance = a[i] - b[i];
80
81 4854074942 distance *= distance;
82
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4854074942 if (dist >= limit - distance)
83 2192395011 return limit;
84 2661679931 dist += distance;
85 }
86
87 274545884 return dist;
88 }
89
90 17717679 static inline void vect_division(int *res, int *vect, int div, int dim)
91 {
92 int i;
93
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17717679 if (div > 1)
94
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68921122 for (i=0; i<dim; i++)
95
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55987062 res[i] = ROUNDED_DIV(vect[i],div);
96
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4783619 else if (res != vect)
97 733096 memcpy(res, vect, dim*sizeof(int));
98
99 17717679 }
100
101 2884774 static int eval_error_cell(ELBGContext *elbg, int *centroid, cell *cells)
102 {
103 2884774 int error=0;
104
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28053978 for (; cells; cells=cells->next) {
105 25169204 int distance = distance_limited(centroid, elbg->points + cells->index*elbg->dim, elbg->dim, INT_MAX);
106
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25169204 if (error >= INT_MAX - distance)
107 return INT_MAX;
108 25169204 error += distance;
109 }
110
111 2884774 return error;
112 }
113
114 5872699 static int get_closest_codebook(ELBGContext *elbg, int index)
115 {
116 5872699 int pick = 0;
117
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233149759 for (int i = 0, diff_min = INT_MAX; i < elbg->num_cb; i++)
118
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227277060 if (i != index) {
119 int diff;
120 221404361 diff = distance_limited(elbg->codebook + i*elbg->dim, elbg->codebook + index*elbg->dim, elbg->dim, diff_min);
121
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221404361 if (diff < diff_min) {
122 11934164 pick = i;
123 11934164 diff_min = diff;
124 }
125 }
126 5872699 return pick;
127 }
128
129 5872699 static int get_high_utility_cell(ELBGContext *elbg)
130 {
131 5872699 int i=0;
132 /* Using linear search, do binary if it ever turns to be speed critical */
133 uint64_t r;
134
135
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5872699 if (elbg->utility_inc[elbg->num_cb - 1] < INT_MAX) {
136 5872699 r = av_lfg_get(elbg->rand_state) % (unsigned int)elbg->utility_inc[elbg->num_cb - 1] + 1;
137 } else {
138 r = av_lfg_get(elbg->rand_state);
139 r = (av_lfg_get(elbg->rand_state) + (r<<32)) % elbg->utility_inc[elbg->num_cb - 1] + 1;
140 }
141
142
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115242984 while (elbg->utility_inc[i] < r) {
143 109370285 i++;
144 }
145
146 av_assert2(elbg->cells[i]);
147
148 5872699 return i;
149 }
150
151 /**
152 * Implementation of the simple LBG algorithm for just two codebooks
153 */
154 1442387 static int simple_lbg(ELBGContext *elbg,
155 int dim,
156 int *centroid[3],
157 int newutility[3],
158 int *points,
159 cell *cells)
160 {
161 int i, idx;
162 1442387 int numpoints[2] = {0,0};
163 1442387 int *newcentroid[2] = {
164 1442387 elbg->scratchbuf + 3*dim,
165 1442387 elbg->scratchbuf + 4*dim
166 };
167 cell *tempcell;
168
169 1442387 memset(newcentroid[0], 0, 2 * dim * sizeof(*newcentroid[0]));
170
171 1442387 newutility[0] =
172 1442387 newutility[1] = 0;
173
174
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21135784 for (tempcell = cells; tempcell; tempcell=tempcell->next) {
175 19693397 idx = distance_limited(centroid[0], points + tempcell->index*dim, dim, INT_MAX)>=
176 19693397 distance_limited(centroid[1], points + tempcell->index*dim, dim, INT_MAX);
177 19693397 numpoints[idx]++;
178
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140985023 for (i=0; i<dim; i++)
179 121291626 newcentroid[idx][i] += points[tempcell->index*dim + i];
180 }
181
182 1442387 vect_division(centroid[0], newcentroid[0], numpoints[0], dim);
183 1442387 vect_division(centroid[1], newcentroid[1], numpoints[1], dim);
184
185
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21135784 for (tempcell = cells; tempcell; tempcell=tempcell->next) {
186 19693397 int dist[2] = {distance_limited(centroid[0], points + tempcell->index*dim, dim, INT_MAX),
187 19693397 distance_limited(centroid[1], points + tempcell->index*dim, dim, INT_MAX)};
188 19693397 int idx = dist[0] > dist[1];
189
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19693397 if (newutility[idx] >= INT_MAX - dist[idx])
190 newutility[idx] = INT_MAX;
191 else
192 19693397 newutility[idx] += dist[idx];
193 }
194
195
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1442387 return (newutility[0] >= INT_MAX - newutility[1]) ? INT_MAX : newutility[0] + newutility[1];
196 }
197
198 1442387 static void get_new_centroids(ELBGContext *elbg, int huc, int *newcentroid_i,
199 int *newcentroid_p)
200 {
201 cell *tempcell;
202 1442387 int *min = newcentroid_i;
203 1442387 int *max = newcentroid_p;
204 int i;
205
206
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10286969 for (i=0; i< elbg->dim; i++) {
207 8844582 min[i]=INT_MAX;
208 8844582 max[i]=0;
209 }
210
211
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21135784 for (tempcell = elbg->cells[huc]; tempcell; tempcell = tempcell->next)
212
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140985023 for(i=0; i<elbg->dim; i++) {
213 121291626 min[i]=FFMIN(min[i], elbg->points[tempcell->index*elbg->dim + i]);
214 121291626 max[i]=FFMAX(max[i], elbg->points[tempcell->index*elbg->dim + i]);
215 }
216
217
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10286969 for (i=0; i<elbg->dim; i++) {
218 8844582 int ni = min[i] + (max[i] - min[i])/3;
219 8844582 int np = min[i] + (2*(max[i] - min[i]))/3;
220 8844582 newcentroid_i[i] = ni;
221 8844582 newcentroid_p[i] = np;
222 }
223 1442387 }
224
225 /**
226 * Add the points in the low utility cell to its closest cell. Split the high
227 * utility cell, putting the separated points in the (now empty) low utility
228 * cell.
229 *
230 * @param elbg Internal elbg data
231 * @param indexes {luc, huc, cluc}
232 * @param newcentroid A vector with the position of the new centroids
233 */
234 740259 static void shift_codebook(ELBGContext *elbg, int *indexes,
235 int *newcentroid[3])
236 {
237 cell *tempdata;
238 740259 cell **pp = &elbg->cells[indexes[2]];
239
240
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6647112 while(*pp)
241 5906853 pp= &(*pp)->next;
242
243 740259 *pp = elbg->cells[indexes[0]];
244
245 740259 elbg->cells[indexes[0]] = NULL;
246 740259 tempdata = elbg->cells[indexes[1]];
247 740259 elbg->cells[indexes[1]] = NULL;
248
249
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9150982 while(tempdata) {
250 8410723 cell *tempcell2 = tempdata->next;
251 8410723 int idx = distance_limited(elbg->points + tempdata->index*elbg->dim,
252 8410723 newcentroid[0], elbg->dim, INT_MAX) >
253 8410723 distance_limited(elbg->points + tempdata->index*elbg->dim,
254 8410723 newcentroid[1], elbg->dim, INT_MAX);
255
256 8410723 tempdata->next = elbg->cells[indexes[idx]];
257 8410723 elbg->cells[indexes[idx]] = tempdata;
258 8410723 tempdata = tempcell2;
259 }
260 740259 }
261
262 6568199 static void evaluate_utility_inc(ELBGContext *elbg)
263 {
264 6568199 int64_t inc=0;
265
266
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135406981 for (int i = 0; i < elbg->num_cb; i++) {
267
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128838782 if (elbg->num_cb * (int64_t)elbg->utility[i] > elbg->error)
268 44577128 inc += elbg->utility[i];
269 128838782 elbg->utility_inc[i] = FFMIN(inc, INT_MAX);
270 }
271 6568199 }
272
273
274 2220777 static void update_utility_and_n_cb(ELBGContext *elbg, int idx, int newutility)
275 {
276 cell *tempcell;
277
278 2220777 elbg->utility[idx] = newutility;
279
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20645321 for (tempcell=elbg->cells[idx]; tempcell; tempcell=tempcell->next)
280 18424544 elbg->nearest_cb[tempcell->index] = idx;
281 2220777 }
282
283 /**
284 * Evaluate if a shift lower the error. If it does, call shift_codebooks
285 * and update elbg->error, elbg->utility and elbg->nearest_cb.
286 *
287 * @param elbg Internal elbg data
288 * @param idx {luc (low utility cell, huc (high utility cell), cluc (closest cell to low utility cell)}
289 */
290 1442387 static void try_shift_candidate(ELBGContext *elbg, int idx[3])
291 {
292 1442387 int j, k, cont=0, tmp;
293 1442387 int64_t olderror=0, newerror;
294 int newutility[3];
295 1442387 int *newcentroid[3] = {
296 1442387 elbg->scratchbuf,
297 1442387 elbg->scratchbuf + elbg->dim,
298 1442387 elbg->scratchbuf + 2*elbg->dim
299 };
300 cell *tempcell;
301
302
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5769548 for (j=0; j<3; j++)
303 4327161 olderror += elbg->utility[idx[j]];
304
305 1442387 memset(newcentroid[2], 0, elbg->dim*sizeof(int));
306
307
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4327161 for (k=0; k<2; k++)
308
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28053978 for (tempcell=elbg->cells[idx[2*k]]; tempcell; tempcell=tempcell->next) {
309 25169204 cont++;
310
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183278642 for (j=0; j<elbg->dim; j++)
311 158109438 newcentroid[2][j] += elbg->points[tempcell->index*elbg->dim + j];
312 }
313
314 1442387 vect_division(newcentroid[2], newcentroid[2], cont, elbg->dim);
315
316 1442387 get_new_centroids(elbg, idx[1], newcentroid[0], newcentroid[1]);
317
318 1442387 newutility[2] = eval_error_cell(elbg, newcentroid[2], elbg->cells[idx[0]]);
319 1442387 tmp = eval_error_cell(elbg, newcentroid[2], elbg->cells[idx[2]]);
320
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1442387 newutility[2] = (tmp >= INT_MAX - newutility[2]) ? INT_MAX : newutility[2] + tmp;
321
322 1442387 newerror = newutility[2];
323
324 1442387 tmp = simple_lbg(elbg, elbg->dim, newcentroid, newutility, elbg->points,
325 1442387 elbg->cells[idx[1]]);
326
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1442387 if (tmp >= INT_MAX - newerror)
327 newerror = INT_MAX;
328 else
329 1442387 newerror += tmp;
330
331
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1442387 if (olderror > newerror) {
332 740259 shift_codebook(elbg, idx, newcentroid);
333
334 740259 elbg->error += newerror - olderror;
335
336
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2961036 for (j=0; j<3; j++)
337 2220777 update_utility_and_n_cb(elbg, idx[j], newutility[j]);
338
339 740259 evaluate_utility_inc(elbg);
340 }
341 1442387 }
342
343 /**
344 * Implementation of the ELBG block
345 */
346 5827940 static void do_shiftings(ELBGContext *elbg)
347 {
348 int idx[3];
349
350 5827940 evaluate_utility_inc(elbg);
351
352
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19218458 for (idx[0]=0; idx[0] < elbg->num_cb; idx[0]++)
353
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13390518 if (elbg->num_cb * (int64_t)elbg->utility[idx[0]] < elbg->error) {
354
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5872699 if (elbg->utility_inc[elbg->num_cb - 1] == 0)
355 return;
356
357 5872699 idx[1] = get_high_utility_cell(elbg);
358 5872699 idx[2] = get_closest_codebook(elbg, idx[0]);
359
360
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5872699 if (idx[1] != idx[0] && idx[1] != idx[2])
361 1442387 try_shift_candidate(elbg, idx);
362 }
363 }
364
365 5790190 static void do_elbg(ELBGContext *restrict elbg, int *points, int numpoints,
366 int max_steps)
367 {
368 5790190 int *const size_part = elbg->size_part;
369 5790190 int i, j, steps = 0;
370 5790190 int best_idx = 0;
371 int last_error;
372
373 5790190 elbg->error = INT_MAX;
374 5790190 elbg->points = points;
375
376 do {
377 5827940 cell *free_cells = elbg->cell_buffer;
378 5827940 last_error = elbg->error;
379 5827940 steps++;
380 5827940 memset(elbg->utility, 0, elbg->num_cb * sizeof(*elbg->utility));
381 5827940 memset(elbg->cells, 0, elbg->num_cb * sizeof(*elbg->cells));
382
383 5827940 elbg->error = 0;
384
385 /* This loop evaluate the actual Voronoi partition. It is the most
386 costly part of the algorithm. */
387
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82569666 for (i=0; i < numpoints; i++) {
388 76741726 int best_dist = distance_limited(elbg->points + i * elbg->dim,
389 76741726 elbg->codebook + best_idx * elbg->dim,
390 elbg->dim, INT_MAX);
391
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2124772296 for (int k = 0; k < elbg->num_cb; k++) {
392 2048030570 int dist = distance_limited(elbg->points + i * elbg->dim,
393 2048030570 elbg->codebook + k * elbg->dim,
394 elbg->dim, best_dist);
395
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2048030570 if (dist < best_dist) {
396 65105756 best_dist = dist;
397 65105756 best_idx = k;
398 }
399 }
400 76741726 elbg->nearest_cb[i] = best_idx;
401
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76741726 elbg->error = (elbg->error >= INT_MAX - best_dist) ? INT_MAX : elbg->error + best_dist;
402 153483452 elbg->utility[elbg->nearest_cb[i]] = (elbg->utility[elbg->nearest_cb[i]] >= INT_MAX - best_dist) ?
403
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76741726 INT_MAX : elbg->utility[elbg->nearest_cb[i]] + best_dist;
404 76741726 free_cells->index = i;
405 76741726 free_cells->next = elbg->cells[elbg->nearest_cb[i]];
406 76741726 elbg->cells[elbg->nearest_cb[i]] = free_cells;
407 76741726 free_cells++;
408 }
409
410 5827940 do_shiftings(elbg);
411
412 5827940 memset(size_part, 0, elbg->num_cb * sizeof(*size_part));
413
414 5827940 memset(elbg->codebook, 0, elbg->num_cb * elbg->dim * sizeof(*elbg->codebook));
415
416
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82569666 for (i=0; i < numpoints; i++) {
417 76741726 size_part[elbg->nearest_cb[i]]++;
418
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404684722 for (j=0; j < elbg->dim; j++)
419 327942996 elbg->codebook[elbg->nearest_cb[i]*elbg->dim + j] +=
420 327942996 elbg->points[i*elbg->dim + j];
421 }
422
423
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19218458 for (int i = 0; i < elbg->num_cb; i++)
424 13390518 vect_division(elbg->codebook + i*elbg->dim,
425 13390518 elbg->codebook + i*elbg->dim, size_part[i], elbg->dim);
426
427
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5827940 } while(((last_error - elbg->error) > DELTA_ERR_MAX*elbg->error) &&
428 (steps < max_steps));
429 5790190 }
430
431 #define BIG_PRIME 433494437LL
432
433 /**
434 * Initialize the codebook vector for the elbg algorithm.
435 * If numpoints <= 24 * num_cb this function fills codebook with random numbers.
436 * If not, it calls do_elbg for a (smaller) random sample of the points in
437 * points.
438 */
439 5790190 static void init_elbg(ELBGContext *restrict elbg, int *points, int *temp_points,
440 int numpoints, int max_steps)
441 {
442 5790190 int dim = elbg->dim;
443
444
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5790190 if (numpoints > 24LL * elbg->num_cb) {
445 /* ELBG is very costly for a big number of points. So if we have a lot
446 of them, get a good initial codebook to save on iterations */
447
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1964720 for (int i = 0; i < numpoints / 8; i++) {
448 1934047 int k = (i*BIG_PRIME) % numpoints;
449 1934047 memcpy(temp_points + i*dim, points + k*dim, dim * sizeof(*temp_points));
450 }
451
452 /* If anything is changed in the recursion parameters,
453 * the allocated size of temp_points will also need to be updated. */
454 30673 init_elbg(elbg, temp_points, temp_points + numpoints / 8 * dim,
455 numpoints / 8, 2 * max_steps);
456 30673 do_elbg(elbg, temp_points, numpoints / 8, 2 * max_steps);
457 } else // If not, initialize the codebook with random positions
458
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18800365 for (int i = 0; i < elbg->num_cb; i++)
459 13040848 memcpy(elbg->codebook + i * dim, points + ((i*BIG_PRIME)%numpoints)*dim,
460 dim * sizeof(*elbg->codebook));
461 5790190 }
462
463 5759517 int avpriv_elbg_do(ELBGContext **elbgp, int *points, int dim, int numpoints,
464 int *codebook, int num_cb, int max_steps,
465 int *closest_cb, AVLFG *rand_state, uintptr_t flags)
466 {
467
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5759517 ELBGContext *const restrict elbg = *elbgp ? *elbgp : av_mallocz(sizeof(*elbg));
468
469
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5759517 if (!elbg)
470 return AVERROR(ENOMEM);
471 5759517 *elbgp = elbg;
472
473 5759517 elbg->nearest_cb = closest_cb;
474 5759517 elbg->rand_state = rand_state;
475 5759517 elbg->codebook = codebook;
476 5759517 elbg->num_cb = num_cb;
477 5759517 elbg->dim = dim;
478
479 #define ALLOCATE_IF_NECESSARY(field, new_elements, multiplicator) \
480 if (elbg->field ## _allocated < new_elements) { \
481 av_freep(&elbg->field); \
482 elbg->field = av_malloc_array(new_elements, \
483 multiplicator * sizeof(*elbg->field)); \
484 if (!elbg->field) { \
485 elbg->field ## _allocated = 0; \
486 return AVERROR(ENOMEM); \
487 } \
488 elbg->field ## _allocated = new_elements; \
489 }
490 /* Allocating the buffers for do_elbg() here once relies
491 * on their size being always the same even when do_elbg()
492 * is called from init_elbg(). It also relies on do_elbg()
493 * never calling itself recursively. */
494
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5759517 ALLOCATE_IF_NECESSARY(cells, num_cb, 1)
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5759517 ALLOCATE_IF_NECESSARY(utility, num_cb, 1)
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5759517 ALLOCATE_IF_NECESSARY(utility_inc, num_cb, 1)
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5759517 ALLOCATE_IF_NECESSARY(size_part, num_cb, 1)
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5759517 ALLOCATE_IF_NECESSARY(cell_buffer, numpoints, 1)
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5759517 ALLOCATE_IF_NECESSARY(scratchbuf, dim, 5)
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5759517 if (numpoints > 24LL * elbg->num_cb) {
501 /* The first step in the recursion in init_elbg() needs a buffer with
502 * (numpoints / 8) * dim elements; the next step needs numpoints / 8 / 8
503 * * dim elements etc. The geometric series leads to an upper bound of
504 * numpoints / 8 * 8 / 7 * dim elements. */
505 23325 uint64_t prod = dim * (uint64_t)(numpoints / 7U);
506
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23325 if (prod > INT_MAX)
507 return AVERROR(ERANGE);
508
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23325 ALLOCATE_IF_NECESSARY(temp_points, prod, 1)
509 }
510
511 5759517 init_elbg(elbg, points, elbg->temp_points, numpoints, max_steps);
512 5759517 do_elbg (elbg, points, numpoints, max_steps);
513 5759517 return 0;
514 }
515
516 10 av_cold void avpriv_elbg_free(ELBGContext **elbgp)
517 {
518 10 ELBGContext *elbg = *elbgp;
519
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10 if (!elbg)
520 return;
521
522 10 av_freep(&elbg->size_part);
523 10 av_freep(&elbg->utility);
524 10 av_freep(&elbg->cell_buffer);
525 10 av_freep(&elbg->cells);
526 10 av_freep(&elbg->utility_inc);
527 10 av_freep(&elbg->scratchbuf);
528 10 av_freep(&elbg->temp_points);
529
530 10 av_freep(elbgp);
531 }
532